Our groundwater comes from precipitation in the form of rain or melting snow. The majority of the precipitation evaporates. Some passes through plants to be released back to the atmosphere through transpiration. The remaining water either flows overland into rivers and streams, or it permeates the ground and ends up in aquifers.

Underground water is either stored within sand or gravel pockets or within small cracks in rock. Some rock/sand/gravel formations are saturated with water and are permeable. These are accessible to wells or springs, thus are open to the atmosphere and unconfined. These are referred to as UNCONFINED AQUIFERS. Rock formations that are less permeable and cannot readily pass water are called CONFINING BEDS. The aquifers underneath them contain water under pressure. These are called ARTESIAN AQUIFERS.


We’re experienced in drilling both confined and unconfined wells. We consider the soil structure in your area as well as the depth to water of nearby wells. Depending on what we find, we’ll choose to use either air or mud as the drilling agent. Depth to water varies depending on your location in the state. In the Rio Grande Valley, the water table is typically 100 to 500 feet deep, and as we move closer to the foothills of the Organ Mountains, depth to water increases. Drilling the well beyond the depth of the water table will allow for changes in the depth of the water table over time and to ensure a larger area of water inflow.